Short Guide to Geo-Botanical Surveying by S. V. Viktorov, Ye. A. Vostokova, D. D. Vyshivkin, R. C.

By S. V. Viktorov, Ye. A. Vostokova, D. D. Vyshivkin, R. C. Rollins and G. Taylor (Auth.)

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A n d r e y e v ( 1 9 4 0 ) recommends that n o t m o r e than 1 0 per cent o f the flying time planned f o r the w h o l e s u r v e y should be spent on reconnais­ sance transects. A f t e r the reconnaissance flights, s u r v e y w o r k in the n a r r o w sense o f the w o r d takes place. W h e n the s u r v e y o r sets out on a transect, he must prepare the aeroplanshetka and the map of the flight, possess a field journal and p h o t o j o u r n a l , and check the condition of his w o r k i n g * It should be noted that Andreyev (1940) includes flights over étalons among re­ connaissance flights.

Naturally this type o f s u r v e y presupposes the existence o f aerial photographs o f the entire t e r r i t o r y t o be surveyed. T h e i r scale may v a r y : the largest scale o f contact prints is n o t required here, as a s u r v e y f r o m an aeroplane, because o f its t e m p o (due to the speed o f the a e r o ­ plane) makes it impossible f o r the s u r v e y o r t o dwell u p o n the smallest details o f the plant c o v e r . In the practice o f geo-botanical a e r o - v a l u a ­ tion w o r k prints on a scale o f 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 are widely used.

If the area under study in w h i c h linear valuation is made is almost a square o r a rectangle, the valuation paths are better laid out either perpendicular t o the sides o f the area o r along the t w o diagonals. * T h e best method o f calculation, in K u n i t s y n ' s opinion, is t o use f o u r p a t h s — t w o diagonal and t w o perpendicular t o the sides o f the area. In that case the average v a l u e obtained f r o m all f o u r paths is v e r y close t o the true ratio o f the c o m ­ munities obtained b y means o f a continuous outline s u r v e y o f the area and calculation o f the respective areas w i t h a planimeter.

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