By Michael J. Barlow (auth.), L. Stanghellini, J. R. Walsh, N. G. Douglas (eds.)
In the decade extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) have won expanding significance. greater observational services have allowed fainter and fainter PNe to be studied in galaxies way past the Milky manner. Planetary nebulae might be detected to at the least 30Mpc. they're present in galaxies of every kind and likewise among the galaxies in within sight galaxy clusters. they're invaluable as probes, either for supplying the speed in their host stars and likewise the evolutionary prestige and relation to the stellar inhabitants from which they formed.
This publication includes the complaints of a workshop held at ESO headquarters in Garching in 2004, the 1st assembly committed totally to Extra-galactic Planetary Nebulae. quite a lot of issues is roofed, from stellar and nebular astrophysics to galactic dynamics and galaxy clusters, making this quantity a distinct and well timed reference of extensive astrophysical interest.
Read or Download Planetary Nebulae Beyond the Milky Way: Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Garching, Germany, 19-21 May, 2004 PDF
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Additional resources for Planetary Nebulae Beyond the Milky Way: Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Garching, Germany, 19-21 May, 2004
Courtesy of Dr. M. Cvek, Eastman Dental Institute, Stockholm). 38 CHAPTER 2 Fig. 12. Treatment of a complicated crown fracture by pulpotomy and subsequent bonding of the crown fragment This 9-year-old boy has suffered a dental trauma 1 day previously. Note the good vascularity of the exposed pulp. e. Calasepf) and a glass ionomer cement as a cover. Testing the fit of the fragment The fragment is tried in to ensure that the cover over the pulpotomy does not prevent correct repositioning of the fragment.
Polymerization of the palatal aspect of the f i a c w e Removal of surplus composite With a straight scalpel blade or composite finishing h i v e surplus composite is removed from the fracture site. The interproxima1 bonding area are finished with finishing strips. 33 CROWN FRACTURE Reinforcing the fracture site. A round diamond bur is used to create a “double chamfer” margin l mm coronally and apically to the fracture line. To achieve optimal esthetics, the chamfer follows an undulating path along the fracture line.
This is easily achieved by splinting the mobile fragment to adjacent teeth using acid etch and temporary crown and bridge resin or glass ionomer cement. Once this is done, the patient can be dismissed, to return at a later date for definitive therapy. At the initial visit, pulpal therapy is usually not indicated, as pulpal vascularity apical to the fracture line is usually intact and capable of combating infection. 50 CHAPTER 3 Removal of the coronal fragment with subsequent restoration above gingival level Treatment principle.