By Jim Schwiegerling
This ebook connects the dots among geometrical optics, interference and diffraction, and aberrations to demonstrate the improvement of an optical procedure. It specializes in preliminary structure, layout and aberration research, fabrication, and, ultimately, trying out and verification of the person elements and the approach performance. It additionally covers extra really expert themes reminiscent of becoming Zernike polynomials, representing aspheric surfaces with the Forbes Q polynomials, and checking out with the ShackHartmann wavefront sensor. those subject matters are mentioned in additional element than is located in different textbooks, and the strategies are built to the purpose the place readers can pursue their very own analyses or adjust to their specific occasions.
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Extra info for Optical Specification, Fabrication, and Testing (SPIE Press Monograph PM252)
For example, the properties of a given ray emerging from the optical system are often known. The paraxial transfer equation can be used to propagate this paraxial ray to the image plane. However, the heights and optical angles for the ray at early surfaces in the system remain unknown. A method for recovering the ray parameters for an earlier surface for known parameters at some later point in the optical system is needed. There are two techniques for handling this situation. The first technique is to reorder Eqs.
3 Cardinal points Six “special” points known as the cardinal points are defined by the paraxial raytracing data for a complex rotationally symmetric optical system. 4186001 yj nj uj Marginal and chief ray parameters for cemented doublet. 19 θ θ N N‘ Cardinal points of an optical system. to a “black box,” and properties of the rays entering and leaving the system can be easily determined without knowledge of all of the surfaces, spacing, and materials within the box. 19 shows the properties of the cardinal points of a generalized optical system.
This is effectively the same approximation that was made when deriving the transverse magnification in Eq. 14). 15 Geometry for the refraction of a paraxial ray at a surface. 18 Chapter 1 point of intersection was on the optical axis, so a equaled zero. The second effect of making y1 small is that the spherical refracting surface is essentially a plane over the scale. In this realm, y ð1:28Þ tanðÀaÞ≅ À a ≅ 1 : R1 Combining the small-angle approximations with the definitions in Eqs. 28) gives the paraxial refraction equation: n2 u2 ¼ n1 u1 À y1 f1 , ð1:29Þ where f1 is the power of the refracting surface.