By oecd publishing
The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 presents analyses of financial and environmental traits to 2030, and simulations of coverage activities to deal with the foremost demanding situations. with out new guidelines, we probability irreversibly destructive the surroundings and the common source base had to aid fiscal progress and health. the prices of coverage inactiveness are excessive. however the Outlook exhibits that tackling the major environmental difficulties we are facing this day -- together with weather swap, biodiversity loss, water shortage and the well-being affects of pollutants -- is either possible and cheap. It highlights a mixture of guidelines which could handle those demanding situations in an economical approach. the focal point of this Outlook is extended from the 2001 version to mirror advancements in either OECD international locations and Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa (BRIICS), and the way they could greater co-operate on international and native environmental problem-solving. desk of content material : Acronyms and Abbreviations govt precis advent: Context and method half I. DRIVERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL swap bankruptcy 1. intake, creation and know-how bankruptcy 2. inhabitants Dynamics and Demographics bankruptcy three. monetary improvement bankruptcy four. Globalisation bankruptcy five. Urbanisation bankruptcy 6. Key diversifications to the traditional Expectation to 2030 half II. affects OF ENVIRONMENTAL swap bankruptcy 7. weather switch bankruptcy eight. pollution bankruptcy nine. Biodiversity bankruptcy 10. Freshwater bankruptcy eleven. Waste and fabric Flows bankruptcy 12. future health and surroundings bankruptcy thirteen. fee of coverage state of no activity half III. SECTORAL advancements AND guidelines bankruptcy 14. Agriculture bankruptcy 15. Fisheries and Aquaculture bankruptcy sixteen. delivery bankruptcy 17. power bankruptcy 18. chemical compounds bankruptcy 19. chosen Industries -Steel and Cement -Pulp and Paper -Tourism -Mining half IV. placing THE regulations jointly bankruptcy 20. Environmental coverage programs bankruptcy 21. associations and techniques for coverage Implementation bankruptcy 22. international Environmental Co-operation Annex A. neighborhood Environmental Implications Annex B. Modelling Framework
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Additional info for OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030
6. 4% per annum. OECD 2008: only OECD countries impose the tax, starting in 2008. Delayed 2020: all countries apply the tax, but starting only in 2020. Phased 2030: OECD countries implement the tax from 2008; BRIC countries from 2020, and then the rest of the world (ROW) from 2030 onwards. All 2008: in a more aggressive effort to mitigate global GHG emissions, all countries implement the USD 25 tax from 2008. 7. Climate change 13. Cost of policy inaction (Delayed 2020) 17. Energy 20. Environmental policy packages ENV-Linkages; IMAGE suite Climate change stabilisation simulation (450 ppm) Optimised scenario to reach a pathway to stabilise atmospheric concentrations of GHG at 450 ppm CO2eq over the longer term and limit global mean temperature change to roughly 2 °C.
Research capacity, intellectual property rights) by providing the right incentives and using complementarities between instruments. Market-based instruments and well-designed performance standards broaden the potential space for innovation. Firms’ investments in environmental R&D increase with the flexibility of the environmental policy instrument. g. an energy tax) along with information-based instruments, to tackle households’ growing environmental impact. ● Address equity concerns through general policy reforms, rather than through changes in the design of environmental policy.
Increasingly, production-linked payments are conditional on farmers adopting certain practices to reduce environmental harm. While such “cross-compliance” can help to reduce some of the negative environmental impacts of agricultural production, a more effective approach would be to remove environmentally harmful subsidies in the first place. Taxes on farm chemicals also help limit their use, while appropriate pricing of irrigation water would encourage more rational use of water and cost-recovery for irrigation infrastructure provision.