Fluid Catalytic Cracking V, 1st Edition by M.L. Occelli, P. O'Connor

By M.L. Occelli, P. O'Connor

Catalyst construction for the transformation of crudes into gas and different gasoline items is one thousand million dollar/year enterprise and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) symbolize virtually half the refinery catalyst market.During the cracking reactions, the FCC floor is infected by means of metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and by way of coke deposition. for this reason, the catalyst job and product selectivity is lowered to unacceptable degrees hence forcing refiners to exchange a part of the recirculating equilibrium FCC stock with clean FCC to make amends for losses in catalyst functionality. approximately 1,100 tons/day of FCC are used around the world in over two hundred fluid cracking catalyst devices (FCCUs).It is for those purposes that refiners' curiosity in FCC learn has remained excessive over the years virtually independantly, of crude oil costs. despite the fact that, contemporary oil corporation mergers and the dissolution of study laboratories, have tremendously diminished the variety of researchers curious about petroleum refining learn tasks; for this reason the emphasis of analysis has shifted from new fabrics to technique advancements and this pattern is obviously mirrored within the kind of papers contained during this quantity.

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T. E. Whyte, et al. (Amer. Chem. , Washington D. , 1984) pp. 201-217. L. Schuette and A. E. Schweizer, EP 0 749 781 A3, 1997. L. Occelli and P. V. L. Occelli a, A. Aurou b , M. Kalwei c, A. W61kerc, and H. Eckertc aMLO Consulting, Atlanta, GA 30328, USA blnstitut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 2 Av. A. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne, France Clnstitut fiir Physikalische Chemie, Westf~ilische Wilhelms-Universit/it Mtinster, Schlossplatz 7, D-48149 Mianster, Germany The effects of post-synthesis treatments on HY-type zeolites have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen porosimetry, 29Si and 27A1 MAS NMR together with microcalorimetry experiments at 150 ~ with ammonia as the probe molecule.

17 USHY USHY-DA SA(m2/_g) %Na2Q Table 2. 29Si chemical shifts (-ppm) and % relative intensity (in parenthesis) results; some Dhvsicochemical properties of these HY-type zeolites, are described in Table 1 . . . . . - - HY type Si/A1 Tf0Si,4A~ T(1Si,3AI) T(2Si,2A1) ~ T(4Si,0AI} SiOT. 2) . . . . . 8) 46 A D ................ ~ i~ G o -io ....... -ibo ..... 4. 4. The spectra for LZ-10, USHY and USHY-DA are in E, F, and G respectively. faujasite structure and the removal of some of the Al in the form of a soluble salt such as (NH4hAIFs.

55. F. Maug6, J. C. Courcelle, Ph. Engelhard, P. Gallezot and J. Y. Murikami, et al. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986) p. 803. 56. P. Gallezot, B. Feron, M. Bourgogne and Ph. Engelhard, in: Zeolites: Facts, Figures, Future Eds. P. A. Jacobs, et al. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989) p. 1281. 57. P. G61in, and T. Des Couri6res, Appl. Catal. 72 (1991) 179. 58. R. A. Beyerlein, G. A. Tamborski, C. L. Marshall, B. L. Meyers, J. B. Hall and B. J. L. Occelli, (Amer. Chem. , Washington, D. , 1991) p. 109. 59. C. Choi-Feng, J.

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