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Additional info for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook, Edition: 2nd ed
A portion of the overhead liquid is pumped and returned to the tower as reflux. The remainder is sent to a treating unit to remove H2S and other sulfur compounds. The mixed C3's and C4's stream can then be fed to an ether or an alkylation unit. It can be fed to a depropanizer tower where the C3's are separated from C 4,s. The C3's are processed for petrochemical feedstock and the C4's are alkylated. The debutanized gasoline is cooled, first by supplying heat to the stripper reboiler or preheating the debutanizer feed.
High-quality decant oil (low sulfur, low metals, low ash) can be used for carbon black feedstocks. Early FCC units had soft catalyst and inefficient cyclones with substantial carryover of catalyst to the main column where it was absorbed in the bottoms. Those FCC units controlled catalyst losses two ways. First, they used high recycle rates to return slurry to the reactor. Second, the slurry product was routed through slurry settlers, 24 Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook either gravity or centrifugal, to remove catalyst fines.
In general, FCC feeds are predominately paraffinic. The paraffinic carbon content is typically between 50 wt% and 65 wt% of the total feed. Paraffinic stocks are easy to crack and normally yield the greatest amount of total liquid products. They make the most gasoline and the least fuel gas, but also the lowest octane number. "5. "Y . I Y". :yy::::. H H H H H H H NORMAL HEPTANE (CTHI6) Figure 2-1. Examples of paraffins. 42 Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook Oiefins Olefins are unsaturated compounds with a formula of CnH2n.