By G. Borgstrom
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Whoever desires to comprehend the genesis of contemporary technological know-how has to keep on with 3 traces of improvement, all beginning in antiquity, which have been introduced jointly within the paintings of ISAAC NEWTON, particularly 1. historical arithmetic => DESCARTES 2. historical Astronomy => COPERNICUS: I=> NEWTON three. old Mechanics => GALILEO => HUYGENS In technological know-how Awakening I (Dutch variation 1950, first Eng1ish version 1954, moment 1961, first German variation 1956, moment 1965) i've got the 1st 1ine, giving an overview of the advance of arithmetic in Egypt, Babylonia, and Greece.
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Extra resources for Fish As Food Processing, Part 1
However, to minimize oxidation of fat as well as for bacteriological reasons, reasonably fresh fish should be used and should b e handled expeditiously all along the processing chain for the most acceptable product. 2. Initial Preparation and Cooking Fish are first washed thoroughly to remove dirt, slime, and scales, and then beheaded, skinned when possible, and filleted, leaving only the flesh. This is cooked either as fillets or minced, on perforated metal trays in a live steam retort at a pressure of about 2 lb.
6. Microwave Drying Copson and Decareau (1957) have shown that, provided certain precautions are taken to avoid a slight risk of corona discharge, a b e a m of radiation at a frequency of 2450 M c / s can b e used in freeze-drying 1. DRYING AND DEHYDRATION 21 to warm samples of beefsteak weighing a few tens of grams. How ever, the difficulties of applying this method on a large scale are prohibitive, first because high-power microwave radiation cannot b e produced at present without employing a multiplicity of magnetrons, and secondly because both attenuation of the microwave b e a m within the material and uneven heating are practically unavoidable in bulk foodstuffs.
Thus dm dt = KMt±ppm \ixRT ' where dm/dt = mass rate of flow per unit area; Μ = molecular weight; χ = length of flow path; Δ ρ = pressure drop over flow path; pm = arith- [ 1. 35 DRYING AND DEHYDRATION metic average of terminal pressures; R = temperature. gas constant; Τ = absolute Under conditions normally obtaining in vacuum freeze-drying, the effects of mean free path on the water vapor molecules cannot b e ignored, and the right-hand side of equation ( 2 7 ) must b e modified by introducing a term which depends both on the mean free path λ and on K.