By P. G. Forrest (Auth.)
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42 FATIGUE OF METALS tension tests; it is found that the width at the grips needs to be about three times the width of the test section if failure at the ends is to be prevented. The generous transition radii on all three specimens should be noted. To determine the influence of stress concentrations on fatigue strength, tests may be made on notched specimens. There are no agreed standard notches and unfortunately every investigator seems to use a different notch, so that no one set of results can be compared with any other.
The fatigue strength must always be related to the number of cycles to fracture N, unless the material shows a distinct fatigue limit. Where the data were available, other mechanical properties are quoted in the tables, so that a comparison may be made between these and the fatigue strength. It is found that fatigue strength is approximately related to tensile strength and this is shown for the alloys of a number of metals in Figs. 28, 35, 38, 40 and 43. The accuracy with which the fatigue strength can be estimated from the tensile strength can be gauged by the scatter in the points about the mean line or curve in the figures.
It is not usually satisfactory to determine the stress from a, measure of the applied force, because it may be amplified by resonance or affected by the inertia of the moving parts. The method most often adopted is to use a weighbar or dynamometer to measure the applied stress. This is best fitted permanently in series with the testpiece, but it can be used in place of the testpiece as a means of calibrating an alternative method of measurement, such as a crank setting in a mechanically driven machine or a voltage in an electromagnetic machine.