By S. J. B. Reed
Initially released in 2005, this ebook covers the heavily similar options of electron microprobe research (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) particularly from a geological perspective. themes mentioned comprise: ideas of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, basic rules of SEM photo formation, creation of X-ray 'maps' exhibiting elemental distributions, tactics for qualitative and quantitative X-ray research (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), using either 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs outfitted with X-ray spectrometers, and sensible issues equivalent to pattern instruction and remedy of effects. all through, there's an emphasis on geological facets no longer pointed out in comparable books aimed toward a extra basic readership. The publication avoids pointless technical element that allows you to be simply available, and varieties a finished textual content on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, in addition to these operating in commercial laboratories.
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Extra info for Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology
For metals k is 20 Electron–specimen interactions 400 500 700 600 800 Wavelength (nm) (a) 450 500 550 600 Wavelength (nm) (b) Fig. 15. ; and (b) emission lines caused by rare earths (mainly Dy) in zircon. typically in the range 1–4 and under normal conditions ÁT is negligible. On the other hand, for materials of low thermal conductivity, including many minerals, the temperature may be raised significantly: for example, in the case of mica (k ¼ 6 Â10À3) the calculated temperature rise is 160 K for E0 ¼ 20 keV, i ¼ 10 nA and d ¼ 1 mm.
The appearance of the electron beam in a through-focus series: (a) with and (b) without astigmatism (this behaviour can be observed on a cathodoluminescent sample). between specimen and lens (this is not applicable to EMP instruments, in which this distance is fixed). Another important aberration is astigmatism caused by small lens imperfections or contamination on apertures, the effect of which is that two elliptical foci (with perpendicular axes) occur in separate planes. The result is loss of resolution in SEM images.
14. 46 Scanning electron microscopy (a) (b) Fig. 6. Secondary-electron images of Globigerina: (a) 200Â; and (b) 2000Â. (By courtesy of P. 4 Topographic images Fig. 7. A secondary-electron image of aragonite in modern sediment (300 mm Â 200 mm). (By courtesy of J. A. D. ) Fig. 8. A secondary-electron image of diatoms from modern lake sediment (60 mm Â 45 mm). (By courtesy of N. Cayzer and R. ) 47 48 Scanning electron microscopy Fig. 9. A secondary-electron image of a spicular radiolarian (scale bar ¼ 50 mm).