Electrical Energy Systems by M. el-Hawary

By M. el-Hawary

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126) Thus, the rotor of the machine should be running at the single value defined by the stator sources to produce a torque with nonzero average value. This mode of operation yields a synchronous machine which is so named because is can convert average power only at one mechanical speed – the synchronous speed, ωs. The synchronous machine is the main source of electric energy in modern power systems acting as a generator. Induction Machines Single-frequency alternating currents are fed into the stator circuits and the rotor circuits are all short circuited in a conventional induction machine.

Part of the energy will be imparted to the magnetic field of the device and will result in an increase in the energy stored in the field, denoted by dWf. A second component of energy will be expended as heat losses dWloss. The third and most important component is that output energy be made available to the load (dWmech). The heat losses are due to ohmic (I2R) losses in the stator (stationary member) and rotor (rotating member); iron or field losses through eddy current and hysteresis as discussed earlier; and mechanical losses in the form of friction and windage.

The source of B in the case of soft ferromagnetic material can be modeled as due to the current I. 15 Illustrating Ampère’s circuital law: (A) path c1 is a circle enclosing current I, (B) path c2 is not a circle but encloses current I, and (C) path c3 does not enclose current I. give a meaning to the term permeability. Material in this group is suitable for permanent magnets. For hard ferromagnetic material, the source of B is a combined effect of current I and material magnetization M, which originates entirely in the medium.

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