By M. R. Rao, P. K. R. Nair, C. K. Ong (auth.), P. K. R. Nair, C. R. Latt (eds.)
Large components of the nice and cozy, humid tropics in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Latin the USA, the Caribbean, and Africa are hilly or mountainous. Jackson and Scherr (1995) estimate that those tropical hillside parts are inhabited by way of 500 million humans, or one-tenth of the present international inhabitants, lots of whom perform subsistence agriculture. The area most influenced is Asia which has the bottom sector of arable land in line with capita. apart from restricted parts of irrigated terraces, many of the sloping land, which constitutes 60% to ninety% of the land assets in lots of Southeast Asian nations, has been by-passed within the fiscal improvement of the quarter (Maglinao and Hashim, 1993). Poverty in those parts is usually excessive, unlike the relative wealth of irri gated rice farms in lowland components that benefited from the golf green revolution. fast inhabitants progress in a few international locations can be exacerbating the issues of hillside parts. more and more, individuals are migrating from high-potential lowland parts the place land is scarce to extra distant hillside components. Such migra tion, including inherent excessive inhabitants development, is forcing a transforma tion in land use from subsistence to everlasting agriculture on fragile slopes, and is making a new suite of social, monetary, and environmental difficulties (Garrity, 1993; Maglinao and Hashim, 1993).
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Additional info for Directions in Tropical Agroforestry Research: Adapted from selected papers presented to a symposium on Tropical Agroforestry organized in connection with the annual meetings of the American Society of Agronomy, 5 November 1996, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
The various modelling efforts currently underway should help integrate the large body of data that is now available and increase our predictive understanding of agroforestry systems to guide future research and delineate biophysical limits for promising technologies. Few studies have been published on the role of soil fauna, the functions of specific groups, and the scope for their manipulation for improving soil physical properties and nutrient availability to crops. With regard to sequential systems, although research has demonstrated the potential of fallows to improve soil fertility, knowledge on how fallows work in different soil and climatic conditions is still inadequate.
Summary of soil processes/changes as a result of tree-soil-crop interactions during different phases of tree fallow-crop rotation cycles. 32 trees were N2 fixing (Montagnini and Sancho, 1990); total N, Ca and P were increased, relative to a grass fallow, under 30-month-old stands of a number of valuable indigenous trees. However, soil nitrate-N content was higher only under leguminous trees. On acrisols in Togo, Drechsel et al. (1991) recorded 40% to 60% improvement of SOM, CEC and exchangeable cations in the 0-15 em soil layer under five-year-old trees of Acacia auriculiformis, S.
Agroforestry Systems 23: 141-155 Kang BT, Akinnifesi FK and Pleysier JL (1994) Effect of agroforestry woody species on earthworm activity and physicochemical properties of worm casts. Biology and Fertility of Soils 18: 193-199 Kang BT, Reynolds Land Atta-Krah AN (1990) Alley farming. Advances in Agronomy 43: 315-359 Kass DL, Araya JS, Sanchez JO, Pinto LS and Ferreira P (1995) Ten years experience with alley farming in Central America. In: Kang BT, Osiname AO and Larbi A (eds) Alley Farming Research and Development, pp 393-402, liT A, Ibadan, Nigeria 45 Kater LJM, Kante S and Budelman A (1992) Karite (Vitellaria paradoxa) and nere (Parkia big/obosa) associated with crops in South Mali.