By Pavel Novak
4 certain evaluation chapters via various authors disguise low-head hydropower usage, consumption layout for ice stipulations, the interface among estuaries and seas, and polders.
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Extra resources for Developments in Hydraulic Engineering (Developments Series), 1st Edition
The principal technological rule that a given natural resource can be exploited, or a predetermined quantity of goods produced, up to a certain limit, more economically by the application of fewer high-capacity than of more low-capacity producers, applies also in hydropower engineering. e. with the possible maximum head at each plant. Nevertheless, the above expression ‘up to a certain limit’ means that hydrological, topographical, geological and anthropogenic conditions and, last but not least, environmental constraints dictate a limit for the maximum permissible headwater evaluation.
36. Construction of the power curve for a typical run-of-river plant. eqn (29), while during the periods of Q>Qp the utilizable discharge is obviously restricted. e. the plant discharge capacity, is (30) since, when Q exceeds Qp, the available head is smaller than Ht, and the turbine can discharge only Q, smaller than Qp. At very-low-head plants a rated head lower than the one related to the design flow (H*) (Fig. 36) is often chosen to avoid unreasonable diminution of the utilizable discharge and producible power at the lowest head.
8. Unit-block and twin-station arrangements. with spiral casing and elbow-type draft tube, coupled directly or by gear-drive to the generator (Figs 11 and 12). In order to reduce foundation costs it is, under particular geological conditions, expedient to aim at a higher setting of the machines and, consequently, a higher location of the draft tube. If the safety concerning Developments in hydraulic engineering–5 24 FIG. 9. 27 FIG. 10. 31 A remarkable solution for reducing construction costs has been achieved by the construction of spillway conduits within the powerhouse proper, thus rendering possible a reduction in the width of the weir or even its complete omission.