Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short by Fred Piper, Sean Murphy

By Fred Piper, Sean Murphy

This e-book is a transparent and informative advent to cryptography and information protection--subjects of substantial social and political significance. It explains what algorithms do, how they're used, the dangers linked to utilizing them, and why governments can be involved. vital parts are highlighted, similar to circulation Ciphers, block ciphers, public key algorithms, electronic signatures, and purposes resembling e-commerce. This e-book highlights the explosive impression of cryptography on smooth society, with, for instance, the evolution of the net and the creation of extra subtle banking equipment.

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This choice need not be always mutually exclusive. In some applications such as large-scale national ID systems having a broad usage scope, one may need to perform negative identification during enrollment to prevent the possibility of the same user acquiring multiple identities. In the recognition phase, the system can run in the verification mode to deliver benefits or services only to the enrolled users. Apart from the type of functionality, biometric applications can also be classified based on the following issues.

Most of the research and development in the field of biometrics has been focused on this issue. Design of a feature extractor and matcher not only requires a database of biometric samples, but also some prior knowledge about the biometric trait under consideration. For instance, prior knowledge about the “uniqueness” of minutia points facilitated the development of minutiae-based fingerprint recognition systems. Similarly, the fact that a minutiae pattern is typically represented as an unordered set of points, drives the development of a suitable matching algorithm to match the minutia sets.

Depending on the application, we may need to choose between the verification and identification functionalities. This choice need not be always mutually exclusive. In some applications such as large-scale national ID systems having a broad usage scope, one may need to perform negative identification during enrollment to prevent the possibility of the same user acquiring multiple identities. In the recognition phase, the system can run in the verification mode to deliver benefits or services only to the enrolled users.

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