Compaction and Fluid Migration: Practical Petroleum Geology by Kinji Magara

By Kinji Magara

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Schematic transit-time-depth plot where the thickness of sediments deposited after erosion was less than the thickness of erosion. :: I - SANDSTONE. MAXIMUM BURIAL DEPTH = c (PRESENT DEPTH) SHALE TRANSIT TIME Fig. 2-16. Schematic transit-time-depth plot where the thickness of sediments deposited after erosion was more than the thickness of erosion. 26 depth from the present surface is B. In other words, new sediments, whose thickness is B, were deposited after erosion. The thickness of erosion in this case is the total of A and B.

2-9. Schematic diagrams showing the shale porosity-depth relationship ( A ) and corresponding shale transit-timedepth relationship ( B ) of the normal compaction trend. 20 1958) for sandstones, in which a linear relationship is established for the entire range of sandstone porosity (or 0--100%). Fig. 2-9 shows schematic diagrams of shale porosity-depth and transittime-depth relationships in the subsurface. The porosity of clay on the sea floor is known to be 70-8076. During the early stages of burial, porosity decreases rapidly.

Abnormal fluid pressures are common in the Gulf Coast and many other relatively young sedimentary basins. Most abnormal pressures occur at relatively great depths; Dickinson’s fluid-pressure-depth relationship (Fig. 2-21) for the Gulf Coast indicates that abnormal pressures sometimes exist below about 7000 ft. Pressures above this depth are near hydrostatic. In other words, shales above 7000 f t have reached their compaction equilibrium in the Gulf Coast area. The curves for the relatively shallow parts of other basins must also represent nearequilibrium conditions, because all of these curves show lower porosity levels or more compaction at a given depth than the Gulf Coast curve indicates.

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