By Mary D Archer, Martin A Green, Martin Green
The second one version of Clean electrical energy from Photovoltaics, first released in 2001, presents an up-to-date account of the underlying technology, know-how and marketplace clients for photovoltaics. All components have complicated significantly within the decade because the first version was once released, which come with: multi-crystalline silicon cellphone efficiencies having made amazing advances, thin-film CdTe cells having verified a decisive industry presence, and natural photovoltaics keeping out the possibility of competitively priced large-scale energy creation.
Readership: Physicists, chemists, fabric scientists, engineers, power analysts, coverage makers and different solar power specialists.
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Extra resources for Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics (2nd Edition) (Series on Photoconversion of Solar Energy)
September 17, 2014 11:3 Clean Electricity From Photovoltaics (2nd Edition) 10 9in x 6in b1809-ch01 page 10 M. D. Archer produced a bottleneck in the supply of polysilicon in the period 2006–2008, during which its price rose to the point where lower-cost upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG-Si) was able to enter the PV supply chain. This had ∼6N purity, adequate to make multicrystalline Si cells of reasonable performance. However, the global recession of early 2009 caused the price of polysilicon to fall sharply to the point where wafer and cell manufacturers found the higher cost of 9N polysilicon was justified by the higher cell efficiencies they could achieve using it.
Thus this technology September 17, 2014 11:3 Clean Electricity From Photovoltaics (2nd Edition) 14 9in x 6in b1809-ch01 page 14 M. D. Archer fell from favour. 2 Thin-film (amorphous and microcrystalline) silicon The Japanese had effectively already delivered the coup de grâce to Cu2 S/CdS technology by the early 1980s by commercialising small amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) PV panels of modest but sufficient (3–4%) efficiency to power small consumer goods such as watches and calculators.
Many countries, including most in the OECD and several developing countries, have introduced tax or regulatory policies that favour the renewables. Modest renewable set-asides (requirements on major utilities to source some power from renewables) are in place in many countries with liberalised electricity supply industries, and the right to supply power to the grid has been extended to independent power producers (IPPs), sometimes with incentives to source electricity from renewable sources. IPPs can site their plant close to the consumer and avoid the costs of distribution, often as significant as the costs of generation.