Chemistry Basic Elements by Augustus Bailey

By Augustus Bailey

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An iceberg is floating in the lake. If one considers the lake, iceberg and atmosphere as a one system; number of phases are: Iceberg is a solid form of water, lake is liquid water and atmosphere contains water vapours and other gases. So there are three phases (solid, liquid and vapour). The number of phases, components and degree of freedom in the following systems calculated: (1) A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen gases contained in a vessel. (2) Rhombic sulphur in equilibrium with monoclinic sulphur.

Clapeyron equation deals with the change in the equilibrium pressure with a change in the equilibrium temperature. Suppose T and P are temperature and pressure at equilibrium. At equilibrium, free energies of the two phases are equal. (1) Suppose the above equilibrium is disturbed by changing the equilibrium pressure by dP, then the equilibrium temperature should be changed by an amount dT, so that equilibrium is attained once again. Then Gsolid + dGsolid = Gliquid + dGliquid ... (2) (at temperature T + dT and pressure P + dP) From equations (1) and (2) dGsolid = dGliquid ...

Using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation obtained Clapeyron equation for the equilibrium solid liquid. Clapeyron equation deals with the change in the equilibrium pressure with a change in the equilibrium temperature. Suppose T and P are temperature and pressure at equilibrium. At equilibrium, free energies of the two phases are equal. (1) Suppose the above equilibrium is disturbed by changing the equilibrium pressure by dP, then the equilibrium temperature should be changed by an amount dT, so that equilibrium is attained once again.

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