Chemical Zoology, VIII: Echinnodermata, Nematoda, And by Marcel Florkin

By Marcel Florkin

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A peculiar respiratory organ exists in three of the five orders of Holothuroidea; it consists of a pair of highly ramified hollow tubes that come from the cloaca. These tubes, called respiratory trees, are alternately filled and emptied of seawater pumped by the anus; they are true water lungs. The Holothuroidea have often been connected with the Echinoidea because of the fact that they have no arms, that their radial ambulacral canals are in a meridian position, and that these canals are situated under the skeleton of the body wall.

7A). The arms are sometimes simple, but generally they are divided into two or more branches, which can cause an enor­ mous extension of the "fishing area" of the animal. The genital glands, in all recent crinoids, are found in the arms or more generally in certain of their pinnules. During the Paleozoic era the crinoids filled the seas with thousands of species. At the end of that era, three of the recognized subclasses disappeared, but the fourth, the Articulata, developed considerably, starting in the Triassic and becoming particularly important in the Juras­ sic.

Bolker, H. L . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . Nature 2 1 3 , 9 0 4 - 9 0 5 . Boolootian, R. , and Campbell, J . L . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . Science 1 4 5 , 1 7 3 - 1 7 5 . Bovert, T. ( 1 9 0 1 ) . Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Anat. Ontog. Tiere. 1 4 , 6 3 0 - 6 5 3 . Burton, Μ. P. M. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . Nature 2 0 4 , 1 2 1 8 . Buchsbaum, R. ( 1 9 4 8 ) . "Animals without Backbones," p. 3 0 3 . Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 44 Georges Ubaghs Clark, A. H. ( 1 9 1 8 ) . Siboga Expedüie 4 2 B , 1 - 3 0 0 . Clark, A. H. ( 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 5 0 ) .

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