By S.J. Mazzullo, H.H. Rieke, G.V. Chilingarian
This moment quantity on carbonate reservoirs completes the two-volume treatise in this very important subject for petroleum engineers and geologists. jointly, the volumes shape an entire, smooth connection with the houses and creation behaviour of carbonate petroleum reservoirs.The e-book includes beneficial glossaries to geologic and petroleum engineering phrases supplying certain definitions for writers and audio system. teachers will discover a beneficial appendix dedicated to questions and difficulties that may be used for instructing assignments in addition to a consultant for lecture improvement. furthermore, there's a bankruptcy dedicated to middle research of carbonate rocks that's excellent for laboratory instruction.Managers and creation engineers will discover a overview of the most recent laboratory expertise for carbonate formation overview within the bankruptcy on middle research. the trendy category of carbonate rocks is gifted with petroleum construction functionality and total characterization utilizing seismic and good attempt analyses. Separate chapters are dedicated to the real obviously fractured and chalk reservoirs.Throughout the e-book, the emphasis is on formation assessment and performance.This two-volume paintings brings jointly the wide range of ways to the research of carbonate reservoirs and should as a result be of price to managers, engineers, geologists and teachers
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Extra resources for Carbonate Reservoir Characterization: A Geologic-Engineering Analysis
Modified after Arps and Roberts, 1955, Fig. A. Eighty percent of the pressure drop was due to production from the surrounding fields. A. Pressures in sealed carbonate reservoirs, such as bioherms and biostromes, could be caused by the weight of the overburden. For highly permeable and continuous oolite reservoirs, it may be necessary to consider the effects of pressure interference from surrounding reservoirs in order to make reliable material balance calculations. Secondary recovery Definitions of several hydrocarbon recovery terms are in order.
Oil recovery in stock tank barrels, N from a given layer is equal to: N-- W E(Swr-Swi)gs-S i ]1 Bo ' (1-22) where V is the pore volume (reservoir barrels), S i s the final average fractional water saturatio~n in the swept area, Swiis the initial fractional water saturation at the start of the flood, S i is the initial fractional gas saturation at the start of the flood, Eas is the fractional areal sweep efficiency, and B ~is the oil formation volume factor (reservoir barrels/STB). After resaturation of the reservoir was complete (fillup had occurred), water injection was set equal to total liquid production.
Felsenthal and Ferrell (1972) pointed out that there may be exceptions, but one should proceed cautiously under such circumstances. A basic evaluation of residual oil saturation behind the water front is needed so that the flood could be modified to lower this saturation. Buckley and Leverett's (1942) classical paper and Pirson's (1958) pioneering book presented the basic equations for such analyses: fw 1 1 +(kro/aw/~/ao ) ' (1-20) 1 1 + (/Co )---~w---/~o/Cw (1-21) or fw 30 where fw is the fractional flow of water at the producing end of the system.