By Daniel J. Rogers, Ravi Sandhu
Quantum cryptography is a swiftly constructing box that attracts from a couple of disciplines, from quantum optics to info idea to electric engineering. via combining a few basic quantum mechanical rules of unmarried photons with quite a few features of knowledge concept, quantum cryptography represents a primary shift within the foundation for safety from numerical complexity to the elemental actual nature of the communications channel. As such, it grants the holy grail of knowledge safety: theoretically unbreakable encryption. after all, enforcing quantum cryptography in actual broadband communications platforms poses a few special demanding situations, together with producing unmarried photons, distilling random keys from the quantum key distribution technique, and preserving safeguard at either the theoretical and functional point. total, quantum cryptography has a spot within the historical past of mystery holding as a singular and very likely worthy paradigm shift within the method of broadband information encryption. desk of Contents: creation / parts of Classical Cryptography / The Quantum Mechanics of Photons / basics of Quantum Key Distribution / details idea and Key Reconciliation / parts for Broadband QKD / A Survey of QKD Implementations / end - QKD on the market
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Extra resources for Broadband Quantum Cryptography (Synthesis Lectures on Quantum Computing)
More details on these topics will be discussed in later chapters, but it is imperative to illustrate the ideas behind extending the same quantum mechanical algebra to other physical properties of photons. In fact, there is no theoretical reason why the same quantum mechanics does not apply to any two state quantum system (such as electron spins or two-state atomic systems). However, because photons are so fundamental and ubiquitous in communications, we will limit our discussion only to the two-state quantum properties of the electro-magnetic quanta.
But how can she give Bob a random key that is as long as her message without any possibility of it being intercepted? Because Alice is clever, she realizes that she can use Wiesner’s ideas of conjugate coding, albeit with one modification, to securely send to Bob a stream of randomly polarized that he can use to reconstruct a random key suitable for a one time pad. Suppose instead of having a removable waveplate in front of the PBS, Alice instead places a non-polarizing beamsplitter in the path, randomly sending each transmitted single photon to one arm or the other.
In a perfect transmission medium, Bob should always end up with the exact same sequence of random bits as Alice since they ignored any measurements in different bases and thus any introduction of errors. Now suppose an eavesdropper (we will call her Eve) is present between Alice and Bob in an attempt to intercept the key. The only direct attack available to her is a so-called man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack, also called the intercept-resend attack. In this attack, Eve intercepts Alice’s single photon transmissions, measures their polarization, and sends new single photons with that polarization to Bob.