Atlas of Muscle Innervation Zones: Understanding Surface by Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi

By Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi

This ebook closes a niche among examine and daily perform, reporting on new and substitute units that let analysis of muscle mass, with no invasive electromyography. Discusses functions in rehabilitation, activities, and occupational overall healthiness.

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And they can open or close depending on the difference in electric potential across the membrane (membrane voltage). Secondly, a fundamental feature of the membrane is a pumping mechanism (active transport), pumping Na+ ions out and K+ ions in. These pumps are indicated with thick arrows in Fig. 1b. The operation of these pumps increases the concentration of Na+ ions outside and K+ ions inside the muscle fiber. Of course, Na+ and K+ ions partially flow back through the respective channels because of the concentration gradients created by the pumps.

Not all the fibers end in the same place. Thus, the transition from propagating to non-propagating signals due to the end-of-fiber effect may not be so distinct, such that the estimate is less accurate. Conduction velocity may be visually estimated as the ratio between the distance D and the time interval T, as shown in Fig. 8 (where the conduction velocity is indicated with the symbol V). Again, also for this estimate, the channels affected by the end-of-fiber effect should not be considered. Estimation of the conduction velocity of a MU from a single firing is relatively simple but is considerably more complex for an interferential signal that is the sum of the contributions of many MUs, as discussed in the literature (Farina and Merletti, 2000, 2004).

These pumps are indicated with thick arrows in Fig. 1b. The operation of these pumps increases the concentration of Na+ ions outside and K+ ions inside the muscle fiber. Of course, Na+ and K+ ions partially flow back through the respective channels because of the concentration gradients created by the pumps. These flows are indicated with thin arrows in Fig. 1b. Ions are electrically charged and their concentration difference generates an electric potential difference with the positive pole, where there is a surplus of positive charges, and with the negative pole, where there is a surplus of negative charges.

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