Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

Various mixtures of commercially to be had applied sciences may possibly enormously decrease gas intake in passenger automobiles, sport-utility automobiles, minivans, and different light-duty automobiles with no compromising automobile functionality or protection. Assessment of applied sciences for making improvements to mild accountability car gas Economy estimates the capability gas mark downs and prices to shoppers of obtainable know-how mixtures for 3 sorts of engines: spark-ignition fuel, compression-ignition diesel, and hybrid.

based on its estimates, adopting the complete mixture of stronger applied sciences in medium and big vehicles and pickup vehicles with spark-ignition engines may decrease gas intake through 29 percentage at an extra expense of $2,200 to the shopper. exchanging spark-ignition engines with diesel engines and elements could yield gasoline rate reductions of approximately 37 percentage at an extra price of roughly $5,900 in line with motor vehicle, and exchanging spark-ignition engines with hybrid engines and parts would scale back gasoline intake via forty three percentage at a rise of $6,000 in step with vehicle.

The ebook makes a speciality of gasoline consumption--the quantity of gasoline fed on in a given riding distance--because strength rate reductions are at once concerning the volume of gasoline used. against this, gas economic system measures how a ways a motor vehicle will go back and forth with a gallon of gas. simply because gas intake information point out cash stored on gasoline purchases and mark downs in carbon dioxide emissions, the publication unearths that car stickers may still offer shoppers with gasoline intake facts as well as gasoline economic climate information.

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Turns. There is no turning in the EPA certification testing. The measurement of the fuel economy of hybrid, plugin hybrid, and battery electric vehicles presents additional difficulties in that their performance on the city versus highway driving cycles differs from that of conventional vehicles. Regenerative braking provides a greater gain in city driving than in highway driving. Plug-in hybrids present an additional complexity in measuring fuel economy since this requires accounting of the energy derived from the grid.

Neither is based on cumulative production, as is much of the literature on learning by doing. DOT/NHTSA (2009, p. 185) judged that a first cycle of volume-based learning would occur at a volume of 300,000 units per year and that costs would be reduced by 20 percent over low-volume estimates. A second learning threshold was set at 600,000 units per year, at which point a second cost reduction of 20 percent was taken. No further volume-based learning was assumed. The NHTSA applied this procedure to only three technologies in its 2011 rule: integrated starter generator, two-mode hybrid, and plug-in hybrid.

Depending on the drive schedule, it varies from 15 to 25 percent (including the energy to power accessories). This range is significantly less than the peak efficiency hb,max discussed earlier. In addition to the specific operating characteristics of the particular components, the computation of engine fuel consumption depends on the following inputs: (1) the transmission gear at each instant during the driving schedule and (2) the engine fuel consumption rate during braking and idling. 8 should be considered as an illustrative example of the energy distribution in 2007 model-year vehicles with conventional SI power trains.

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