By Jorge Ancheyta
During the upgrading of heavy petroleum, asphaltene is the main challenging impurity because it is the most reason for catalyst deactivation and sediments formation. Exploring many features relating to asphaltenes composition and conversion, Asphaltenes: Chemical Transformation in the course of Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils highlights a number of the adjustments that those heavy and complicated molecules endure in the course of catalytic hydroprocessing.
After defining and characterizing asphaltene constitution, the ebook examines the composition of petroleum and the strategies and catalysts for upgrading heavy oils. It then information the characterization of asphaltenes after hydroprocessing and the impression of response stipulations on their buildings. The authors additionally study the deactivation and characterization of spent hydroprocessing catalysts in addition to the function performed by means of asphaltenes. They hide sediments formation in the course of hydroprocessing and the function of asphaltenes on it. the ultimate chapters describe the hydrocracking and kinetics of asphaltenes and the fractionation of heavy crudes and asphaltenes.
Due to the expanding construction of heavy crude oils, asphaltene has develop into essentially the most studied molecules. This ebook presents a deep realizing of ways asphaltenes remodel in the course of hydroprocessing, delivering perception on designing catalysts and processing for the upgrading of heavy oils.
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Extra resources for Asphaltenes: Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils (Chemical Industries)
Metals content is more or less similar in asphaltenes from Isthmus and Olmeca. The smallest difference in composition using both solvents is observed in Olmeca asphaltenes. This is likely due to the small size of asphaltenes of this light crude, which makes its composition almost constant in spite of using different solvents. 16. It is seen that a large part of the heteroelements is contained in asphaltenes. Olmeca’s asphaltenes have less sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen content in their structures.
1997). In this sense, the importance of SEC in analyzing changes that asphaltenes and other heavy fractions of petroleum suffer during hydroprocessing is evident. Under hydrotreating conditions, asphaltenes size is changed. During reaction, asphaltenes may suffer rearrangements and changes in their structures and dissociation into smaller aggregates before conversion could be feasible. Merdrignac et al. (2006) have reported the evolution of the molecular weight of asphaltenes and compared the changes that occur in fixed-bed reactor and ebullated-bed reactor.
Sulfur occupying the positions R1 and R2 is thiophenic type. , S is directly bound in the axial coordination position or not, but in this last case, there is an association between sulfur and vanadium. 29 also shows the possible interactions with sulfur where R3 and R4 are alkyl or aromatic carbons. The main advantages and disadvantages of SEC are: Advantages • SEC gives a full distribution of molecular weight of heavy samples, such as bitumen or asphaltenes. • Reliable distributions of molecular weight are obtained if a proper solvent is used and good qualitative results can be obtained.