Ascorbic Acid in Plants: Biosynthesis, Regulation and by Yuyang Zhang

By Yuyang Zhang

Ascorbate acid (AsA) is a crucial antioxidant in vegetation, enjoying very important roles in a variety of physiological strategies. people have misplaced the power to synthesize AsA as a result loss of L-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidoreductase, and therefore need to take in ascorbate from nutrition together with clean vegatables and fruits, as they're the most important resources of ascorbate. numerous pathways for AsA biosynthesis and metabolism were pointed out in vegetation in view that 1998. extra consciousness has been paid to bettering ascorbate content material in crops specifically in fruit and veggies. major progresses were made on key enzymes and genes focused on the AsA biosynthesis and metabolism. lately, extra pursuits have arised within the rules of AsA biosynthesis, because it is continually regulated through the plant improvement and the environmental components, e.g. gentle. Ascorbic acid can be usually mentioned to impact plant progress and improvement e.g. flowering time and fruit ripening. The scope of the ebook is to hide the organic function, biosynthesis and metabolism, legislation, and metabolic amendment of ascorbate in vegetation.

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Plant Cell Environ 28:1487–1495 63. Huang GY, Wang YS, Sun CC, Dong JD, Sun ZX (2010) The effect of multiple heavy metals on ascorbate, glutathione and related enzymes in two mangrove plant seedlings (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). Oceanol Hydrobiol Stud 39:11–25 64. Fridovich I (1998) Oxygen toxicity: a radical explanation. J Exp Biol 201:1203–1209 65. Asada K (1999) The water–water cycle in chloroplasts: Scavenging of active oxygens and dissipation of excess photons. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:601–639 66.

The ascorbate level as well as activities of the biosynthesis related enzymes in plants responds rapidly to oxidative stress. The content of ascorbate increased in plants grown in polluted air together with the enzymatic activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) involved in its recycling. However, the APX activity remained unchanged in this case. The data obtained support the hypothesis that the glutathione-ascorbate cycle is stimulated in removing the hydrogen peroxide produced under oxidative stress [50].

APX enzyme activities are shown to be correlated with oxidation tolerance [51]. APX activity increased after ozone treatment and this effect was stronger if the plants were pre-treated with anti-ozonant ethylenediurea prior to O3-exposure. The ozone exposure of plants stimulates the APX, whose enzymatic activity enhancement at the apoplastic and cytosolic levels may act as a biochemical defence against ozone damage [52]. Scavenging the ROS in plants is one of the major tasks of ascorbate. The ROS is generated during photosynthesis and respiration, as well as in various stress such as drought, extreme temperature, salt, ultraviolet etc.

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