Analytical Advances for Hydrocarbon Research by M. R. Riazi (auth.), Chang Samuel Hsu (eds.)

By M. R. Riazi (auth.), Chang Samuel Hsu (eds.)

Determining the composition and homes of advanced hydrocarbon combos in petroleum, man made fuels, and petrochemical items often calls for a battery of analytical concepts that notice and degree particular gains of the molecules, comparable to boiling aspect, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies, and so on. there have regularly been a necessity for brand spanking new and more advantageous analytical expertise to raised comprehend hydrocarbon chemistry and procedures. This booklet offers an outline of modern advances and destiny demanding situations in sleek analytical suggestions which are time-honored in hydrocarbon functions. specialists in all of the parts lined have reviewed the state-of-the-art, hence making a ebook that may be necessary to readers in any respect degrees in educational, undefined, and learn institutions.

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It is principally used for trace elements at sub-mg/kg or ug/kg levels . Although higher levels of elements can certainly be determined by this technique by appropriate dilutions, errors introduced by dilutions makes it less than an ideal technique for the determination of major or minor elements in a matrix . In GF/AAS, a heated graphite tube replaces the flame as the atomization source. After depositing a small volume of the sample solution in the graphite cuvette, it is heated with electric current through three stages of evaporation of the solvent, ashing of the sample, and finally, atomization of the sample at a temperature of about 3000°C.

Elemental Analysis ofHydrocarbon Products 33 Petroleum products can be wet ashed with mineral acids and brought into aqueous solution for AAS measurements. Alternatively, many liquid petroleum products can be simply diluted with organic solvents such as kerosene, xylenes, or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIDK), etc. and direct AAS measurements can be made. Aqueous metallic standards are used in the first instance, and organometallic standards in organic solvents are used in the latter case for instrument calibration .

Aromatic oils have higher C/H values than the paraffinic oils. Higher CIH values correspond to lower H/C atomic ratios as follows: . 9147 ----C/H( welg HI C (atomic ratio) (23) in which WC is the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio. Petroleum fractions with higher H/C (lower elH) have higher heating values and better quality. Hydrogen as a perfect fuel has CIH value of 0 and carbon as a worse fuel has CIH value of 0Ci (H/C =0). 18 Chapter I C I. , (n ol~yl(ycIoPt"loM,1 Oil 010 . f e Q 1• J0" 01. on .

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