By Norbert Berkowitz
An advent to Coal Technology thoroughly describes coal expertise study and improvement. Coal is a vital fundamental gas in the course of the global and learn has unfold from coal liquefaction and gasification to applied sciences for constructing fresh coal. The publication is split into components. half I makes a speciality of the formation and primary houses of coal. half II addresses fresh advancements and demanding technical approaches similar to the practise and combustion strategies of unpolluted coal, environmental administration of coal, and quickly pyrolysis. This moment version builds upon and updates the profitable therapy awarded in Dr. Berkowitzs esteemed 1979 e-book.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Coal Technology, Second Edition (Energy Science & Engineering Series)
Repeatability refers to measurements by the same analyst, working with the same apparatus, while reproducibility refers to results obtained by different analysts from tests in different equipment. References 1. 2. 3. 4. F. Muck, "Grundzüge u. Ziele der Steinkohlenchemie," Bonn, 1881. H. Fayol, Bull. Soc. Ind. Miner. 15 (2), 546 (1887). M. C. Stopes, Proc. R. Soc. London 90B, 470 (1919). R. Thiessen, Coal Age 18, 1183 (1920); J. Geol. 28, 185 (1920). 54 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
However, where ash is removed as a molten slag, considerable importance also attaches to the viscosity characteristics of the slag, and these can be evaluated from ash compositions [98-100]. As illustrated in Fig. , above the temperature of "critical viscosity" (Γον), can be estimated from Reid-Cohen correlations (see Fig. 3). ÏÏ 60 40 20 Si 1¡ca R a t i o >35 40 45 '50 55 60 65 10 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 Temperature, F 3000 Fig. 3 Reid-Cohen correlations for calculation of ash viscosities. (After Reid and Cohen ; by permission of J.