By Yuri Bregel
Yuri Bregel's Atlas presents us with a bird's eye view of the advanced background of this crucial a part of the Islamic global, that is heavily hooked up with the background of Iran, Afghanistan, China, and Russia; at diversified occasions components of this zone have been integrated in those neighboring states, and because 1991 5 new self reliant states emerged in primary Asia: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. protecting the 4th century B.C. to the current, the maps convey a number of the political entities, their approximate borders, the foremost ethnic teams and their migrations, army campaigns and battles, and so forth. each one map is observed by way of a textual content which supplies a concise survey of the most occasions of the political and ethnic historical past of the respective interval. With designated maps at the distribution of the Turkmen, Uzbek, Qazaq, and Qirghiz tribes within the 19th-20th centuries, in addition to the site of significant archaeological websites and architectural monuments. The final map (Central Asia in 2000) exhibits current gasoline and oil pipelines.
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Additional resources for An Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Handbook of Oriental Studies/Handbuch Der Orientalistik - Part 8: Uralic & Central Asian Studies, 9) (Handbook of ... Section 8 Uralic & Central Asia Studies)
After a long siege, the ikhshid of Samarqand submitted to the Arabs, who received from him a substantial tribute and put their garrison in the city. Soon after this, an anti-Arab coalition was formed, including the rulers of Chach and Ferghana, as well as some of the Soghdians who did not recognize the surrender of the ikhshid. At this juncture an army of the Second Türk Qaghanate appeared in Soghd (see above) and fought the Arabs, but the Türks were defeated by Qutayba and returned to the east, after which the other members of the coalition were also defeated.
Ahmad (892-907), it was during the reign of Nasr II b. Ahmad (914-943) that the state experienced its greatest prosperity. The capital of the state was Bukhara, which was the seat of the central administration modelled upon the caliphal court in Baghdad. The head of the Samanid family had the title of amir, lit. “commander,” but meaning rather “governor” (for the caliph); the Samanids continued to nominally recognize the supreme authority of the caliph, but actually were completely independent.
It is not clear whether the disappearance of the ghazis contributed to the ultimate fall of the Samanids, but, in any case, it made the Qarakhanid conquest easier. The western expansion of the Qarakhanids began around 976, when they captured silver mines in Ilaq which had belonged to the Samanids, and in 990 they captured Isfijab. At the end of 991 the Qarakhanid Bughra Khan Harun (or Hasan) b. Sulayman invaded Mavarannahr and in 992 captured Bukhara, almost without any resistance. However, Bughra Khan soon fell ill in Bukhara, abandoned the city and died on the way north.