By Ricardo Garcia
Filling a niche within the literature, this publication good points in-depth discussions on amplitude modulation AFM, offering an summary of the speculation, instrumental concerns and functions of the strategy in either academia and undefined. As such, it comprises examples from fabric technological know-how, tender condensed topic, molecular biology, and biophysics, between others. The textual content is written in the sort of means as to let readers from varied backgrounds and degrees of craftsmanship to discover the knowledge compatible for his or her wishes.
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Additional info for Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy
Second, the force gradient was assumed independent of the separation. Third, the force gradient was smaller than the cantilever force constant kts ( k. 4 Detuning in a weakly perturbed harmonic oscillator. The gradient of the tip surface forces shifts the resonance curve to lower frequencies (attractive force) or to higher frequencies (repulsive force). assumptions. A quantitative discussion on the limitations of the harmonic oscillator approach to interpreting dynamic AFM experiments is provided by H€ olscher et al.
Several assumptions have been applied to deduce j33 j 3 Tip Surface Interaction Forces 34 the above, in particular d ) lD. To make a quantitative comparison with the experimental data it requires to determine the charging process occurring in surfaces. The DVLO theory is able to explain a variety of phenomena in colloidal stability. Double layer and van der Waals forces have remarkable differences. First, for similar surfaces one is repulsive and the other attractive. Second, double layer forces depend on the electrolyte concentration, while the ion concentration does not affect van der Waals interactions.
Notice the shift of the resonant frequency and the broadening of the resonance when the measurement is done in water. Adapted from Ref. . The above curves were taken very far from the sample surface, so the tip surface forces did not affect the curve. However, in AM AFM the tip surface forces could substantially modify the shape of the resonance curve. 10 shows three resonance curves taken in air at different separations from a mica surface (12, 6, and 5 nm). 10 Resonance curves as a function of the tip surface distance (zc 12, 6, 5 nm).