Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering: Principles, by Clifford J. Studman

By Clifford J. Studman

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If the survey has covered a long distance it will be necessary to shift the instrument one or more times to do this. 15% and a fore-sight taken. The instrument is then shifted and a back-sight obtained, and the process is repeated until the bench-mark reading can be taken as the final fore-sight. Providing this procedure is completed the survey is called a closed traverse, because the survey has returned back to the original starting bench-mark (otherwise it would have been an open traverse). Where a large area is to be levelled, it is usually necessary to use change points to "carry" a line of levels over a long horizontal distance.

15, which will be discussed shortly). Each line represents one survey point. e. Closing the levels It is good practice for levels to start and finish at a point of known height, ie, to work back to the original bench-mark at the end of the survey. An indication of the accuracy of the field work is obtained by "closing" the levels in this way. f. Flying levels Often it is necessary to shift the instrument during a survey and this may mean that the bench-mark is no longer visible from the instrument position at the end when it is desired to close the survey.

9 with (A) and (B), then there is a mistake in calculating the RLs from the rise and fall figures and this must be corrected. This check is only to verify the arithmetic, and has no connection with the field work. Any error in the field work measurements (especially intermediate sights) can only be corrected if it is noticed before the instrument is moved from the position in which the mistake was made. 3. 03 metres, but there are no arithmetical mistakes, as the check shows. 10 Instrument checking The above instructions give correct readings so long as the spirit bubble and line of sight of the telescope are parallel.

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