2011 CFA Level 1 Schweser Study Notes+Practice by The Kaplan Schweser

By The Kaplan Schweser

Fresh 2011CFA point 1 Schweser learn Notes ! top fabrics that can assist you go the examination with plenty of loose presents! 2011 Schweser examine Notes1
e-book 1 moral Standards,and Quantitative approach ebook 2 Economics e-book three monetary Reporting and research e-book four company Finance,Portfolio Management,and fairness Investme booklet five fastened Income,Derivatives,and adjust. fast sheet:It is a foldable 6-page,laminated record comprises key formulas,definitions,and innovations for a fast evaluate of each significant subject within the CFA curriculum.

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In this article only the latter are treated (for mandibular alarm substances see review articles by Wilson, 1965; Maschwitz, 1966; and Blum, 1969). This function has developed independently in the three families where social forms can be found: in Apidae, Vespidae, and Formicidae. Chemical alarm developed only in higher organized communities. In more primitive (Polistes, Bombus) colonies and those with only a few inhabitants (Portera, Myrmecina) this ability has not yet been developed. An important gland producing alarm substances is the venom gland (Vespa, Myrmicinae, Formica).

In this case the alarm secretion and the venom are identical (Dolichoderinae, Formica) or different from each other (most of Myrmicinae, Vespa). , Formica or Lasius. , Camponotinae. The alarm secretions generally are released at the attack; however, they can be released independently by a true alarm reaction. Mostly the alarmed colony members, especially in the nest attack flee; workers flee less often. This latter reaction can be observed especially at the feeding place. Aggressive ants, however can be stimulated to attack at the feeding place also.

In Philanthus this may be determinated by the venom dose (Rathmayer, 1962). Only rarely are the victims immediately killed by the sting (social wasps, ants, some sphecids). In Sphecidae, Pompilidae, and Yespidae the paralyzed victims are transported to the nest where eggs are laid on them. Scolicoidea and Bethyloidea build no nests. The viable state of the prey after it has been stung prevents it from decaying and becoming unsuitable for brood nutrition. The site of venom action in most cases is still unknown (Piek and Simon Thomas, 1969).

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